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Picture of Alexander Lapthorne

Alexander Lapthorne

Base-10 System

The base-10 system is a number system using ten digits—0 through 9—that can be grouped together to form a decimal number. Each position within a decimal number represents a power of 10.

Base-2 System

Base-2 system is the binary number system that uses only two digits—0 and 1. In the binary number system, each position represents a power of 2.


A non-SI measurement of light output. The total light output within one steradian from a light source. 1 lumen is equal to 2pie candela.


An SI measurements of the total light output from a light source.


An SI measurement of light output equal to lumen per square metre.


A non-SI measurement of light output equal to 1 candela per square metre.


View-DR is Sony’s innovative technology to produce images with an extremely wide dynamic range. View-DR is a combination of Sony’s full-capture Wide-D technology, the high-speed ExmorTM CMOS sensor, and Visibility Enhancer (VE) technology. The full-capture Wide-D technology in View-DR uses an electronic shutter to capture multiple images and reproduce each frame. One image is taken using a standard exposure time and either one or three images are taken using very short exposure times, depending on the camera type.

With the newly developed View-DR algorithm, all of the electrons converted from the captured light are fully used by the imager, which is quite different to some other Wide-D technologies in the industry that discard approximately half of these electrons. As a result, View-DR nearly doubles sensitivity compared to conventional Wide-D technologies.

To capture multiple HD resolution images at a very high speed, the Exmor CMOS sensor is used because of its high-speed readout characteristics. During the process of combining multiple images, the Visibility Enhancer (VE) is employed to provide a high level of chrominance and luminance. With View-DR, the monitored image become very visible – sometimes it is even more visible than when viewed with the naked eye.

Visibility Enhancer (VE)

VE is one of Sony’s advanced technologies that optimizes contrast and makes a scene more visible. It is ideal for scenes in which objects are difficult to recognize due to severe backlight or shadows. VE optimizes the brightness and colour reproduction of an image dynamically on a pixel-by-pixel basis, while continuously adapting to the scene. Technically, VE stretches the contrast in both the backlit portions and the shadows within a given dynamic range, which is different to Wide-D. VE also contributes to the camera’s high sensitivity. By combining VE with XDNR, the camera can reproduce clear and bright images in very low-light conditions, while keeping noise at a minimal level.

Wide-D Technologies

These are technologies to expand a camera’s video dynamic range; they improve the visibility of images, even in extremely high-contrast environments. Sony’s powerful Wide-D feature enables cameras to be used under severe lighting conditions.

Picture of Darren Shurmer (admin)

Darren Shurmer (admin)

3D Cinema

A visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images in the third dimension,

4K resolution

Image of 4096 x 2160 pixels giving 8.8 million pixels per colour (four times the resolution of 2K)

802.11 Group of Standards

The 802.11 Group of Standards are specifications for wireless local area networking. The original standard was released in 1997 and many extensions have been added over the years.


802.3 is a networking standard established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Among other things, 802.3 standardized the operation of CSMA/CD. While Ethernet and 802.3 differ slightly in their terminology and their frame format, their media access control (MAC) protocols are virtually identical. Today, the term Ethernet refers generically to both the sets of Ethernet standards.


Ack is an abbreviation for Acknowledgement. It is the affirmative response of one device to another in the connection establishment process.

Active Scanning

In a wireless environment, active scanning is when a client probes for a particular network in order to associate with it.

ActiveX control

A component program object that can be used with web pages or other application programs. The technology for creating ActiveX control is part of software developed by Microsoft.

Adaptive IR

Adaptive IR analyses the cameras captured images and adjusts brightness intensity of the cameras built-in IR LEDs to prevent overexposure of close object images. The SNC-VM772R 4K camera adopts a new version of Adaptive IR, it is equipped with two types of IR LED, each for short and long distances, and adjusts these independently to match the zoom setting, providing the best IR images with appropriate exposure even for near and far objects.

Address Resolution

Address resolution is the process of using Layer 3 addresses to determine Layer 2 addresses.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

In TCP/IP-based networks, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the protocol that manages the address resolution process.

Advanced IR

Advanced IR provides high-quality IR images without overexposure, delivering clear B/W images of close and distant objects.


Advanced Encryption Standard. 128-bit encryption is used under the DCI specification (not to be confused with Audio Engineering Society, the standards body for audio)

Alternative Content

Any content that is not a DCI/Hollywood movie that a digital cinema may wish to show e.g. HD, live concert/sports event, cult TV

Analog Lines

Analog lines are the wires or cables used to carry analog signals, such as those in your home telephone service. Analog lines are typically copper wire and operate at Layer 1 or the Physical Layer. An analog signal is a continuous series of electrical pulses that vary over time, like waves.

Anamorphic lens

A special lens used on 2K D-cinema projectors to stretch the image from an aspect ratio of 2:1 out to Cinemascope at 2.39:1. These lenses are no longer allowed to be used for Hollywood content under the new DCI specification.

ANSI lumens

American National Standards Institute method of measuring projector brightness. The DCI specification favours "Foot Lamberts" (fL) measurement.

Answer print

The final movie film print made directly from the cut film negative. It represents the "Master" from which all copies are taken. The aim of D-cinema is to bring this Answer Print quality into every cinema instead of the current poor film multi-generation copy quality

Application Layer

The Application Layer specifies network-related functions for a user application or program so that communication with another program over a network is possible. It's important to note that this is not the user interface itself. When a user chooses to read email, transfer a file, or surf the network, the user's software program, such as a Web browser, interacts with the Application Layer. In the Five-Layer Model and the TCP/IP Model, the Application Layer also manages encoding, data compression, encryption, and sessions. In the Reference Model, those functions are delegated to the Presentation Layer and Session Layer.

Application Layer/Layer 7

In the OSI Reference Model, the Application Layer is Layer 7. It specifies network-related functions for a user application or program to ensure that communication with another application or program over a network is possible. It's important to note that this is not the user interface itself. When a user chooses to read email, transfer a file, or surf the network, the user's software program, such as a Web browser, interacts with the Application Layer. In the Five-Layer Model and the TCP/IP Model, the Application Layer has a broader scope of functionality. In those models, it also includes the functionality of the OSI Reference Model's Presentation Layer (Layer 6) and Session Layer (Layer 5).

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a Layer 2 WAN protocol that can transport voice, video, and data on the same network with guaranteed performance or quality of service for each type of traffic. Customers can build a Virtual Private Network using ATM.

ATM Adaption Layer (AAL)

The ATM Adaption Layer (AAL) is responsible for segmenting the packet into fixed-length cells of 48 bytes each. The receiving device reassembles the cells into the original packet.

Autonomous WLAN Architecture

Autonomous architecture, also known as Fat Access Point or Fat AP architecture, is a form of wireless LAN architecture where all functionality is coded into every access point (wireless termination point).

Available Bit Rate (ABR)

Available Bit Rate (ABR) is the ATM service category that is used by applications, such as critical data transfers, that can dynamically adjust their data transmission rate in response to network feedback. The goal of the ABR service is to allow application access to unused network bandwidth.

Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN)

Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) bits are bits in the Frame Relay header used to notify an end station, such as a router, of network congestion. When congestion occurs, Frame Relay switches set the BECN bit to a one in frames going back toward the source of traffic indicating that the sending router should slow down transmission until the congestion subsides.

Bandwidth control

To limit the amount of transmitted data.


A bit is the binary digit used in the binary numbering system. A bit is the most basic information unit that computers use. A single bit is a one or a zero, a true or a false, or an on or an off.

Bit rate

The rate at which data bits are transmitted.


A bridge is a Layer 2 network device that connects two or more physical cable segments to create one larger network. Each side of the bridge becomes a separate collision domain or network segment. So, a bridge can be used to break up a large network into separate collision domains. A bridge builds a MAC address table that it uses to manage traffic flow. When a bridge receives data from an unknown MAC address, it adds that address to its MAC address table and notes the port associated with that address. Then, if a bridge later receives data for that address, it will know on which port it should forward the data. If a bridge receives data for an unknown destination address, it will forward the data on all ports, which is known as flooding. Bridges operate based on reading Layer 2 frame information only. They cannot change Layer 2 addresses, and they do not have any access to Layer 3 data.

Broadcast Address

The broadcast MAC address is a special address used to send data to all devices on the same network. The broadcast MAC address is ffff.ffff.ffff. Other types of MAC addresses include unicast addresses and multicast addresses.

Broadcast Domain

A broadcast domain is the group of devices that can be reached by sending a frame addressed to the broadcast MAC address.


Bursty refers to data that transfers or transmits in short, uneven spurts. LAN traffic is typically bursty.


Byte is a group of 8 bits. It is also known as an octet.


To display the audio and video digital data from the video equipment on a computer.

Cell Loss Priority (CLP)

Cell Loss Priority (CLP) is an ATM cell bit indicating which cells should be discarded first, in the case of network congestion.

Cell Loss Ratio (CLR)

Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) is the ATM QoS parameter for the percentage of cells that are lost in the network because of error or congestion and that are not received by the destination.

Cell Transfer Delay (CTD)

Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) is the ATM QoS parameter for the delay experienced by a cell between the time it takes for the source to transmit the first bit of the cell and the destination to receive the last bit of the cell.

Centralized (Switched) WLAN Architecture

Centralized architecture, also known as a switched WLAN system, is a form of wireless LAN architecture where a central switch or access point controller manages multiple access points that are Thin or Lightweight, meaning that they do not themselves contain full LAN functionality.

Central Office (CO)

Central Office (CO) is the term used to refer to the service provider's nearest exchange. A CO is like a distribution center, sending data to other COs along the path to its final destination.

Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU)

A Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU) is a device that prepares data traffic for digital lines. The DSU converts the digital frames used in the service provider's network into a frame format that the router can understand and vice versa. The CSU provides termination for the digital signal and ensures connection integrity through error correction and line monitoring.


A checksum, also known as a Cyclic Redundancy Check or CRC, is a simple mathematical calculation performed on each frame to ensure it hasn't been corrupted in transit.

CIDR Block

A CIDR block is a representation of the addresses in a range indicated by the prefix length in an address specified in CIDR or slash notation.

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