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Label Switched Paths (LSPs)

Label Switched Paths (LSPs) are the unidirectional paths used to connect each location in an MPLS network.

Label Switching Routers (LSRs)

Label Switching Routers (LSRs) are routers running the MPLS protocol.


Any group of computers on a single, geographically limited network is a called a local area network (LAN). LANs allow users to exchange documents and share resources such as printers or file servers. A LAN can be either wired or wireless, or a combination of both.

Layer 2 Address

When sending data on a network, Layer 2 addresses identify the stops made along the way, and not the communicating computers or endpoints. Layer 2 addresses change with each stop along the route to the final destination. A Layer 2 address is also known as a MAC address, a hardware address, or a physical address.

Layer 3 Address

A Layer 3 address identifies a unique destination. A network administrator assigns each computer on a network a unique Layer 3 address. The destination and source Layer 3 addresses identify the communicating computers or end points. A Layer 3 address is also known as an IP address or a logical address.

Layer 3 MPLS VPNs or IP VPNs

Layer 3 MPLS VPNs or IP VPNs define a way for providers to use their IP backbone to provide IP-based VPN services regardless of what Layer 2 technology is in use. Layer 3 MPLS VPNS use label switched paths to interconnect different customer locations and keep traffic separated. Customer edge routers exchange IP routing information with the provider's routers where it is stored in a virtual router and forwarding table. Provider Edge routers exchange routes with other provider edge routers within the VPN. When IP packets enter the MPLS network, the provider edge router determines which LSP to use to based on the routing information in the virtual router and forwarding table .

Leased Line

A leased line is a pre-established communications path between two locations with a fixed amount of bandwidth-whether or not it is used. Leased lines are owned by the service provider and not by the customer.

Link Control Protocol (LCP)

Link Control Protocol (LCP) packets are the packets exchanged between two devices during the PPP connection establishment process.

Link Decryption (LD)

Decrypts the content that has been encrypted by the Link Encryptor

Link Encryption (LE)

Encrypts the transmission of the content over links between physical devices in exhibition

Local Loop or Last Mile

Local loop or last mile refers to the copper or fiber cable that connects the CPE to the nearest CO.

Longest Match Routing

Longest Match Routing is also known as longest match route lookup. It is the process a router uses to select the best route in its routing table when multiple routing entries match. The longest match is the entry with the most bits turned on in the network mask.

Loopback Interface

The loopback interface is a virtual software interface, not associated with or connected to any hardware, that a device uses to send a message back to itself. The loopback interface is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing. The loopback interface's IP address is


An SI measurements of the total light output from a light source.


An SI measurement of light output equal to lumen per square metre.

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