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Ack is an abbreviation for Acknowledgement. It is the affirmative response of one device to another in the connection establishment process.

Active Scanning

In a wireless environment, active scanning is when a client probes for a particular network in order to associate with it.

ActiveX control

A component program object that can be used with web pages or other application programs. The technology for creating ActiveX control is part of software developed by Microsoft.

Adaptive IR

Adaptive IR analyses the cameras captured images and adjusts brightness intensity of the cameras built-in IR LEDs to prevent overexposure of close object images. The SNC-VM772R 4K camera adopts a new version of Adaptive IR, it is equipped with two types of IR LED, each for short and long distances, and adjusts these independently to match the zoom setting, providing the best IR images with appropriate exposure even for near and far objects.

Address Resolution

Address resolution is the process of using Layer 3 addresses to determine Layer 2 addresses.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

In TCP/IP-based networks, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the protocol that manages the address resolution process.

Advanced IR

Advanced IR provides high-quality IR images without overexposure, delivering clear B/W images of close and distant objects.


Advanced Encryption Standard. 128-bit encryption is used under the DCI specification (not to be confused with Audio Engineering Society, the standards body for audio)

Alternative Content

Any content that is not a DCI/Hollywood movie that a digital cinema may wish to show e.g. HD, live concert/sports event, cult TV

Analog Lines

Analog lines are the wires or cables used to carry analog signals, such as those in your home telephone service. Analog lines are typically copper wire and operate at Layer 1 or the Physical Layer. An analog signal is a continuous series of electrical pulses that vary over time, like waves.

Anamorphic lens

A special lens used on 2K D-cinema projectors to stretch the image from an aspect ratio of 2:1 out to Cinemascope at 2.39:1. These lenses are no longer allowed to be used for Hollywood content under the new DCI specification.

ANSI lumens

American National Standards Institute method of measuring projector brightness. The DCI specification favours "Foot Lamberts" (fL) measurement.

Answer print

The final movie film print made directly from the cut film negative. It represents the "Master" from which all copies are taken. The aim of D-cinema is to bring this Answer Print quality into every cinema instead of the current poor film multi-generation copy quality

Application Layer

The Application Layer specifies network-related functions for a user application or program so that communication with another program over a network is possible. It's important to note that this is not the user interface itself. When a user chooses to read email, transfer a file, or surf the network, the user's software program, such as a Web browser, interacts with the Application Layer. In the Five-Layer Model and the TCP/IP Model, the Application Layer also manages encoding, data compression, encryption, and sessions. In the Reference Model, those functions are delegated to the Presentation Layer and Session Layer.

Application Layer/Layer 7

In the OSI Reference Model, the Application Layer is Layer 7. It specifies network-related functions for a user application or program to ensure that communication with another application or program over a network is possible. It's important to note that this is not the user interface itself. When a user chooses to read email, transfer a file, or surf the network, the user's software program, such as a Web browser, interacts with the Application Layer. In the Five-Layer Model and the TCP/IP Model, the Application Layer has a broader scope of functionality. In those models, it also includes the functionality of the OSI Reference Model's Presentation Layer (Layer 6) and Session Layer (Layer 5).

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a Layer 2 WAN protocol that can transport voice, video, and data on the same network with guaranteed performance or quality of service for each type of traffic. Customers can build a Virtual Private Network using ATM.

ATM Adaption Layer (AAL)

The ATM Adaption Layer (AAL) is responsible for segmenting the packet into fixed-length cells of 48 bytes each. The receiving device reassembles the cells into the original packet.

Autonomous WLAN Architecture

Autonomous architecture, also known as Fat Access Point or Fat AP architecture, is a form of wireless LAN architecture where all functionality is coded into every access point (wireless termination point).

Available Bit Rate (ABR)

Available Bit Rate (ABR) is the ATM service category that is used by applications, such as critical data transfers, that can dynamically adjust their data transmission rate in response to network feedback. The goal of the ABR service is to allow application access to unused network bandwidth.


Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN)

Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) bits are bits in the Frame Relay header used to notify an end station, such as a router, of network congestion. When congestion occurs, Frame Relay switches set the BECN bit to a one in frames going back toward the source of traffic indicating that the sending router should slow down transmission until the congestion subsides.

Bandwidth control

To limit the amount of transmitted data.

Base-10 System

The base-10 system is a number system using ten digits—0 through 9—that can be grouped together to form a decimal number. Each position within a decimal number represents a power of 10.

Base-2 System

Base-2 system is the binary number system that uses only two digits—0 and 1. In the binary number system, each position represents a power of 2.


A bit is the binary digit used in the binary numbering system. A bit is the most basic information unit that computers use. A single bit is a one or a zero, a true or a false, or an on or an off.

Bit rate

The rate at which data bits are transmitted.


A bridge is a Layer 2 network device that connects two or more physical cable segments to create one larger network. Each side of the bridge becomes a separate collision domain or network segment. So, a bridge can be used to break up a large network into separate collision domains. A bridge builds a MAC address table that it uses to manage traffic flow. When a bridge receives data from an unknown MAC address, it adds that address to its MAC address table and notes the port associated with that address. Then, if a bridge later receives data for that address, it will know on which port it should forward the data. If a bridge receives data for an unknown destination address, it will forward the data on all ports, which is known as flooding. Bridges operate based on reading Layer 2 frame information only. They cannot change Layer 2 addresses, and they do not have any access to Layer 3 data.

Broadcast Address

The broadcast MAC address is a special address used to send data to all devices on the same network. The broadcast MAC address is ffff.ffff.ffff. Other types of MAC addresses include unicast addresses and multicast addresses.

Broadcast Domain

A broadcast domain is the group of devices that can be reached by sending a frame addressed to the broadcast MAC address.


Bursty refers to data that transfers or transmits in short, uneven spurts. LAN traffic is typically bursty.


Byte is a group of 8 bits. It is also known as an octet.



A non-SI measurement of light output. The total light output within one steradian from a light source. 1 lumen is equal to 2pie candela.


To display the audio and video digital data from the video equipment on a computer.

Cell Loss Priority (CLP)

Cell Loss Priority (CLP) is an ATM cell bit indicating which cells should be discarded first, in the case of network congestion.

Cell Loss Ratio (CLR)

Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) is the ATM QoS parameter for the percentage of cells that are lost in the network because of error or congestion and that are not received by the destination.

Cell Transfer Delay (CTD)

Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) is the ATM QoS parameter for the delay experienced by a cell between the time it takes for the source to transmit the first bit of the cell and the destination to receive the last bit of the cell.

Centralized (Switched) WLAN Architecture

Centralized architecture, also known as a switched WLAN system, is a form of wireless LAN architecture where a central switch or access point controller manages multiple access points that are Thin or Lightweight, meaning that they do not themselves contain full LAN functionality.

Central Office (CO)

Central Office (CO) is the term used to refer to the service provider's nearest exchange. A CO is like a distribution center, sending data to other COs along the path to its final destination.

Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU)

A Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU) is a device that prepares data traffic for digital lines. The DSU converts the digital frames used in the service provider's network into a frame format that the router can understand and vice versa. The CSU provides termination for the digital signal and ensures connection integrity through error correction and line monitoring.


A checksum, also known as a Cyclic Redundancy Check or CRC, is a simple mathematical calculation performed on each frame to ensure it hasn't been corrupted in transit.

CIDR Block

A CIDR block is a representation of the addresses in a range indicated by the prefix length in an address specified in CIDR or slash notation.


Proprietary Link Encryption technology CineLink is being upgraded to "CineLink II"


Picture format with an aspect ratio of 2.39:1. Under the DCI specifications, all projectors must letterbox their imaging chips (which are about 2:1 aspect ratio) to show cinemascope movies. This means that a 2K projector vertical resolution goes down to just 700 pixels which is less than HDTV However, a 4K projector vertical resolution will be 1,400 pixels in cinemascope which is still 1 1/2 times the vertical resolution of HDTV keeping cinema ahead of home entertainment

Classful Routing

Classful Routing or Classful IP Addressing was a scheme that divided the IP address space into different-sized chunks or classes of addresses based on how many were used for the network portion and how many were used for the host number. With classful IP addressing, the network number always fell on an octet boundary. For example, a Class A network used the first octet for the network number and the last three octets for host numbers and a Class B network number used the first two octets for the network number and the last two octets for host numbers.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Notation

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation is also known as slash notation. It uses a slash after an to indicate the length of the network prefix in terms of bits. The number after the slash is also known as the prefix length.

Clear Image Zoom

Build on our proprietary By Pixel Super Resolution Technology, the Clear Image Zoom feature can enlarge an image by up to 2x without degrading picture quality (a problem that is often seen with a conventional digital zoom). Combine the SNC-VM772R 4K camera with its optical 2.9x lens, and you can achieve a high-quality zoom of up to 5.8x.

Closed Captions

Captions (subtitles including cues and sound effects) that are not visible on the screen. Closed captions are seen using a closed caption device and only visible to these audience members. Text content is provided on the DCP.

Coaxial Cabling

Coaxial cabling consists of a central conductive core contained within an insulating layer, a metallic shielding layer, and a plastic coating. Consumers may be familiar with coaxial cabling used today with cable television, satellite television, and cable modems.


Software/hardware for coding/decoding video and audio data.

Collision Domain

A collision domain is a group of network devices that compete with each other for access to one physical wire or cable. A collision domain is also known as a network segment.

Committed Information Rate (CIR)

The Committed Information Rate (CIR) is the transmission rate for a virtual circuit guaranteed by the service provider in Frame Relay network.

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