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Darren Shurmer (admin)

Link Encryption (LE)

Encrypts the transmission of the content over links between physical devices in exhibition

Local Loop or Last Mile

Local loop or last mile refers to the copper or fiber cable that connects the CPE to the nearest CO.

Longest Match Routing

Longest Match Routing is also known as longest match route lookup. It is the process a router uses to select the best route in its routing table when multiple routing entries match. The longest match is the entry with the most bits turned on in the network mask.

Loopback Interface

The loopback interface is a virtual software interface, not associated with or connected to any hardware, that a device uses to send a message back to itself. The loopback interface is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing. The loopback interface's IP address is

MAC address

A network address that uniquely identifies each LAN card.

MAC Protocol

In networking, a Media Access Control (MAC) protocol controls access to the physical wire or segment. Ethernet uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) as its MAC protocol. Other MAC protocols exist for other technologies.

Maximum Burst Size (MBS)

Maximum Burst Size (MBS) is the ATM traffic descriptor for the maximum number of cells that can be sent back-to-back at the peak cell rate.

Maximum Receive Unit (MRU)

Maximum Receive Unit (MRU) is the maximum allowable size in bytes for the PPP link. Devices negotiate the MRU during the connection establishment process. The MRU must be agreed upon by two devices before they can exchange data.

Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)

Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the fixed upper limit on the size of packets can be sent in a single frame.

Media Block

The DCI name for what is most often referred to as the server for playing back the movie. It stores the movie and carries out real-time decryption and un-compresses the movie (JPEG2000) and adds an invisible fingerprint into the image.

MEF Three-Layer Model

The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Three-Layer Model for Carrier Ethernet is somewhat like a collapsed version of the Five-Layer Reference Model referred to in this course. The three layers are as follows: Application Services Layer, Ethernet Services Layer, Transport Services Layer, Each layer has its own data, control, and management planes.

Minimum Cell Rate (MCR)

Minimum Cell Rate (MCR) is the ATM traffic descriptor for the minimum rate at which cells can be transported.


A modem is an example of DCE that converts or modulates the digital signal into an analog signal for an analog phone line and then demodulates the analog signal back into a digital signal for a computer.


Abbreviation for Moving Picture Experts Group4. One of the MPEG standards for image compression format aiming to transmit images at a high compression rate with lower picture quality.

MPLS Domain

An MPLS domain is an MPLS network.


The class D IP address assigned between and Using this IP address enables you to transmit the same data to multiple equipment.

Multicast IP Address

Multicast IP addresses are similar to multicast MAC addresses and are the addresses a device uses to send the same data to a specific group of devices.

Multicast MAC Address

A multicast MAC address is used to identify a group of devices on the same network. Multicast addresses always have the first bit of the first byte set to 1. Other types of MAC addresses include unicast addresses and the broadcast address.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a data packet forwarding technology used to improve the forwarding speed of routers by using labels to make forwarding decisions. When a packet enters the MPLS network, the first MPLS router adds a simple label based on fields in the IP header. Routers within the MPLS network forward the packet based on the contents of the label. MPLS is often referred to as a Layer 2.5 protocol because it operates between Layer 2 and Layer 3, is Layer 2-independent, provides the privacy and security of a Frame Relay or ATM network, and yet allows for the inherentany-to-any connectivity and flexibility typical of an IP-based network.

Multi Tracking

Multi Tracking is a useful function to chase and observe multiple moving objects in the image captured with a single 4K camera. It can chase moving objects such as people or cars in the captured image from the position designated with Intelligent Cropping or Intelligent Coding. The operation starts with a trigger from the cameras VMD (video motion detection) function. This allows a single 4K camera to track and follow up to four moving objects. This is useful for a scene in which multiple PTZ cameras are used. This function realizes a precise tracking capability. For example, it can keep tracking two moving objects even if they cross each other. Multi Tracking is used in combination with Intelligent Coding or Intelligent Cropping.


Nak is an abbreviation for Negative Acknowledgement. It is the negative response of one device to another in the connection establishment process.


Negotiation is the process of resolving differences in parameters that two devices go through to establish a connection.

Network Access Layer

In the TCP/IP Reference Model, the Network Access Model focuses on how data is transmitted over any type of physical network, regardless of whether it's a LAN or a WAN. Don't confuse this with the OSI Reference Model's Network Layer.

Network address

The portion that identifies the local network (subnet) in an IP address.

Network bandwidth

Bit rate that can be used for networking.

Network Control Protocol (NCP)

Network Control Protocol (NCP) is a Layer 3-specific protocol used during the PPP connection establishment process to establish and configure the different Layer 3 protocols-such as IP, IPX, or Appletalk-running over the connection.

Network Interface Controller (NIC) or Card (NIC)

Network Interface Controllers or Cards (NICs) or hardware ports are physical circuit cards installed in a computer or printer so that it can connect to a network. The terms NIC, network adapter, network card, and LAN adapter are used interchangeably. In the 1980s, a NIC was an expansion card that plugged into a computer bus. Today, most computers have a NIC built into the motherboard and a separate card is not necessary unless you need connections to multiple networks.

Network Layer/Layer 3

In the OSI Reference Model and the Five-Layer Reference Model, Layer 3 is the Network Layer. The Network Layer receives a segment from Layer 4, the Transport Layer, adds a header to it to create a packet, and sends the packet to Layer 2, the Data Link Layer. The Network Layer is responsible for delivering the packet to the destination computer. If there is more than one route to the destination computer, the Network Layer chooses the best path for the packet to take. The Network Layer treats each packet independently, so it is possible that two packets from the same transmission might take different paths to arrive at the destination computer. This is the same as the TCP/IP Reference Model's Internet Layer.

Network Layer Protocol Identifier (NLPID)

Network Layer Protocol Identifier (NLPID) is the Frame Relay frame field used to specify the Layer 3 protocol.

Network Masks

Network Masks are used to identify the network portion of the address. Also known as masks, address masks, subnet masks, and netmasks.

Network Number

The network number is the first part of a Layer 3 address. (The host number is the second part.) The network number portion of the Layer 3 address identifies the network the device is on. Both the network number and host number are assigned by a network administrator.

Network Prefix

Network Prefix is another term for Network Number.

Network Segment

A network segment is a group of network devices that compete with each other for access to one physical wire or cable. A network segment is also known as a collision domain.

Next Hop Address

The next hop is the next device in the path to the destination device. The next hop address is the address of that device, and either indicates that the destination network is directly connected to the router or provides the Layer 3 address of another router on a directly connected network.


A nibble is 4 bits, which is the number represented by a hexadecimal digit or symbol.

Non-Real Time Variable Bit Rate - nrt-VBR

Non-Real Time Variable Bit Rate is an ATM service category that is similar to rt-VBR but is used for applications with bursty transmission characteristics that tolerate high cell delay, but require low cell loss.

Non-Real Time Variable Bit Rate (nrt-VBR)

Non-Real Time Variable Bit Rate (nrt-VBR) is an ATM service category that is similar to rt-VBR but is used for applications with bursty transmission characteristics that tolerate high cell delay, but require low cell loss.

NTP server

Network time server that transmits and receives time information over the networks.


An octet is a group of 8 bits. It is also known as a byte.

ONVIF Profile S

ONVIF defines a common protocol for the exchange of information between different network video devices regardless of manufacturer, and achieves greater interoperability in multi-vendor network video systems. Profile S is the latest specification (issued by ONVIF in 2012), which improves interoperability between ONVIF-compatible devices and simplifies device management.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol by which routers in one network learn how to communicate with routers in another network.

Optical Carrier (OC)

Optical Carrier (OC) refers to a SONET signal being carried over a fiber optic network. The OC level expresses the speed of an OC-n line, where the speed is equal to n times 51.84 Mbps. For example, an OC-3 signal has a bit rate of 3 * 51.84 Mbps or 155.52 Mbps.

Optical Image Stabilizer

Optical Image Stabilizer incorporates a lens element with gyroscopic sensors in the cameras lens unit and optically compensates for movement in captured images. After detection of camera shake and vibration with the gyroscopic sensors, this function makes the lens element shift direction to cancel the cameras movement so that the optical axis can be kept in the optimal position. This helps to minimize the effect of camera shake or vibration, achieving less blurry images. Unlike some electronic image stabilizers, this function maintains original picture quality without reducing image resolution.

Optical Transport Network (OTN)

Optical Transport Network (OTN) uses wavelength division multiplexing to transport data over optical networks. OTN systems in use today can operate on 40 or even 80 channels simultaneously. Incoming signals can be SONET, SDH, Ethernet, or native OTN traffic.

Organizationally Unique Identifier

The Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) is a 3-byte identifier that each Ethernet equipment manufacturer is assigned by the IEEE. The first three bytes of a MAC address identify a device's manufacturer using the manufacturer's OUI.

OSI Reference Model

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model is a seven-layer model that identifies the steps and functions that must be completed when computers communicate over a network. The OSI model provides only guidelines on how computers communicate over a network. It does not provide detailed procedures on how to actually make this communication happen. The seven layers of the OSI Reference Model are as follows: Application Layer/Layer 7, Presentation Layer - Layer 6, Session Layer - Layer 5, Transport Layer - Layer 4, Network Layer - Layer 3 Data Link Layer - Layer 2 Physical Layer - Layer 1


A packet is one unit of data encapsulated at Layer 3 (also known as the Network Layer in the OSI and Five-Layer models, or the Internet Layer in the TCP/IP Model). Each packet contains a header followed by the data. The packet's header specifies the data's source and destination IP addresses. Each packet header also specifies the IP protocol number, which indicates whether the data should be processed with the UDP or TCP protocol on the receiving computer.

Packet Switched Network

A Packet Switched Network is a type of connection-less network where data is divided into small packets or frames and routed through the network based on the destination address contained within each packet. Because each packet contains the destination address, multiple users can share a network-such as a Frame Relay network.

Packing List

Like a packing list for deliveries, the Packing List contains the identification of each individual file included in a DCP. This list also includes information about each file that allows the receiver to verify that they have every file in its entirety

Passive mode

The mode whereby a client FTP allows TCP connection for data transmission to the FTP server.

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