Software ports are specific to the Transport Layer, and are used to route data to the appropriate Application Layer protocol and ultimately the correct application program.
Solid PTZ can navigate the cameras visible area in the captured images by its digital pan, tilt, and zoom functionalities. This can be used to monitor particular points of interest during the operation.
Spanning Tree Protocol
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) selectively disables forwarding on individual ports of a bridge or switch to ensure that the network topology is loop free. This prevents forwarding storms.
Subnet is short for sub-network and is the splitting of a single network number into smaller networks by changing the mask assigned to each broadcast domain.
32-bit stream used to decide how many upper bits will be used for the network address within the IP address so as to distinguish the network.
Subtitle using Subpictures
One of the two ways of subtitling in DCinema - would be used for the display of special characters like certain Asian characters. Graphics are prerendered for display and are called up on-screen by a script
Subtitle using Timed Text
One of the two ways of subtitling in DCinema - subtitles are rendered out during play out at the theatre
Summary route is the address range allocated to a specific location.
Supernet is the aggregation of many classful network numbers into a single address or routing table entry.
Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR)
Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) is the ATM traffic descriptor for the maximum average cell transfer rate over an extended period of time.
A switch is a Layer 2 network device that enables full-duplex data transmission. Because switches dedicate a single port to each end-user device, collision domains have only two devices-the end-user device and the switch. When connected to a switch, an end-user device can send and receive data simultaneously. A switch builds a MAC address table that it uses to manage traffic flow. Switches operate based on reading Layer 2 frame information only. They cannot change Layer 2 addresses, and they do not have any access to Layer 3 data. In addition to basic Ethernet connectivity, switches make possible virtual LANs.
Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs)
Switched virtual circuits (SVCs) are connections that dynamically establish only when data needs sending and terminates when the transmission is complete. Frame Relay and ATM networks use SVCs.
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is a standard that defines a basic frame format and a hierarchy of signaling speeds for use on a fiber optic line. SDH operates at Layer 1 or the Physical Layer and is available outside of North America and Japan.
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is a standard that defines a basic frame format and a hierarchy of signaling speeds for use on a fiber optic line. SONET operates at Layer 1 or the Physical Layer and is available in North America and Japan.
Synchronous Transport Module (STM)
Synchronous Transport Module (STM) is the frame format used by SDH. In the SDH hierarchy, the lowest or base-level signal is the STM-1 which operates at 155.52 Mbps. The STM Level indicates the speed of an STM-n line where the n is multiplied by 155.52 Mbps. For example, an STM-4 signal has the bit rate of (4 * 155.52 Mbps) or 622 Mbps.
Synchronous Transport Signal (STS)
Synchronous Transport Signal (STS) is the frame format used by SONET. In the SONET standard, the lowest or base-level signal is the Synchronous Transport Signal level 1 (STS-1). An STS-1 operates at 51.84 Mbps, which is enough to carry an entire DS3 link.
A T1 line is a dedicated copper telephone line that supports data rates of 1.54 Mbps. A T1 line operates at Layer 1 or the Physical layer and is commonly available in North American and Japan. A T1 line consists of 24 individual channels or DS0s, each of which supports 64 Kbps. Each channel or DS0 can transport voice or data. A customer can lease an entire T1 line or only a few channels, which is known as fractional T1 service. The equivalent line outside of North America and Japan is an E1 line.
A T3 line is a dedicated copper telephone line that supports data rates of 44.74 Mbps and like a T1, is also built on the base DS0 signal. A T3 is 28 DS1s-or 672 DS0s-bundled together.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a protocol for sending data that provides delivery notification, error checking, and recovery procedures. With TCP, the receiving computer tells the sending computer when the data was received.
TCP/IP Reference Model
The TCP/IP Reference Model is a simple four-layer model developed by the Department of Defense and the Internet Engineering Task Force. This model defines specific protocols at each of the four layers, such as TCP and IP, two of the Internet's core protocols. The four layers of the TCP/IP Model are as follows: Application Layer, Transport Layer, Internet Layer, Network Access Layer
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a network protocol used to transfer data from one computer to another through a network, such as over the Internet.
The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is a protocol for retrieving email from a server.
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is the combining or multiplexing of voice and data signals from different devices into a single link.
Transit LSRs are routers that only examine the MPLS label on a packet.
In the TCP/IP Reference Model, the Transport Layer takes data from the Application Layer, converts it to a format that can be transmitted over the network, and manages the flow of data between the two hosts that are communicating. This is the same functionality as the Transport Layer in the OSI Reference Model and the Five-Layer Model. In those models, the Transport Layer is Layer 4.
Transport Layer/Layer 4
In the OSI Reference Model and the Five-Layer Model, Layer 4 is the Transport Layer. The Transport Layer takes data from the upper layers, converts it to a format that can be transmitted over the network, and manages the flow of data between the two hosts that are communicating. This is the same functionality as the Transport Layer in the TCP/IP Reference Model, but in that model it is the third layer.
True D/N (Day/Night)
A True D/N camera has two modes of operation: a day mode and a night mode. The camera switches from day mode (colour) to night mode (B/W) by replacing its infrared-cut filter with a clear filter. In night mode, the camera becomes sensitive to near-IR light and is capable of reproducing images even when the scene is not visible to the naked eye.
Trunking is the switching of a single ATM virtual path rather than many individual virtual circuits, so that switches do not need to examine each and every virtual circuit to make a switching decision.
Twisted Pair Cabling
Twisted pair cabling consists of twisted pairs of unshielded, but insulated wires. It is also known as UTP, or unshielded twisted pair, cabling. The first 10Base-T networks used ordinary telephone cabling, which is a type of twisted pair cabling. In this type of cable, there are four twisted pairs of wires: two for transmitting data and another two for receiving data. In other applications, such as outdoor telephone cables, twisted pair cabling may have many more twisted pairs of wires.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a very simple and fast protocol for sending data. UDP is a best effort delivery service, providing no delivery notification, error checking, or recovery procedures.
A unicast MAC address uniquely identifies one device. Other types of MAC addresses include multicast addresses and the broadcast address.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is the ATM service category that is used for the lowest priority traffic and provides absolutely no guarantees.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the address where a file can be accessed on the Internet, for example http://www.sony.com/training/index.html. In this example, the protocol is HTTP, the domain is sony.com, and the path to the file is training/index.html.
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling is another name for twisted pair cabling.
Variable Bit Rate with Cap (VBR with Cap)
Our variable bit rate with cap (VBR with cap) is an advanced version of the VBR method. Users can set a maximum target bit rate (cap) for encoding, but the bit rate is unrestricted and can vary, responding to changes in image complexity. When the bit rate exceeds the cap value, the compression ratio is automatically adjusted to drop the bit rate below the target value, reducing network load while maintaining high picture quality. For planning purposes, by referring to the cap value, users can plan storage resources in a similar manner as with CBR encoding.
View-DR is Sony’s innovative technology to produce images with an extremely wide dynamic range. View-DR is a combination of Sony’s full-capture Wide-D technology, the high-speed ExmorTM CMOS sensor, and Visibility Enhancer (VE) technology. The full-capture Wide-D technology in View-DR uses an electronic shutter to capture multiple images and reproduce each frame. One image is taken using a standard exposure time and either one or three images are taken using very short exposure times, depending on the camera type.
With the newly developed View-DR algorithm, all of the electrons converted from the captured light are fully used by the imager, which is quite different to some other Wide-D technologies in the industry that discard approximately half of these electrons. As a result, View-DR nearly doubles sensitivity compared to conventional Wide-D technologies.
To capture multiple HD resolution images at a very high speed, the Exmor CMOS sensor is used because of its high-speed readout characteristics. During the process of combining multiple images, the Visibility Enhancer (VE) is employed to provide a high level of chrominance and luminance. With View-DR, the monitored image become very visible – sometimes it is even more visible than when viewed with the naked eye.
Virtual Channel Connection (VCC)
A Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) is a logical connection between two devices or end points in an ATM network, and is sometimes referred to as a virtual circuit. A VCC is identified by a Virtual Channel Identifier. A collection of VCCs can be bundled together into a Virtual Path Connection, which is identified by a Virtual Path Identifier. The combination of VPI and VCI identify the circuit.
Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI)
A Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) identifies an ATM VCC.
Virtual Circuits are the logical connections running over a single physical communications line and are used to connect two devices or locations. A virtual circuit, also known as a virtual connection, acts like a dedicated connection through the provider's network even though the physical lines might be shared by multiple customers. Frame Relay and ATM networks make use of virtual circuits. Virtual circuits come in two types. A permanent virtual circuit is like a leased line in that the service provider defines a path to each customer location. Permanent virtual circuits are always on and ready to use. A switched virtual circuit is dynamically establishes only when data needs sending and terminates when the transmission is complete.
Virtual Collision Detection
Virtual Collision Detection is a system that can be used by wireless networks to handle and avoid collisions. Virtual Collision Detection uses Request to Send (RTS) and Clear to Send (CTS) control frames to control which client may send data at a given time.
Virtual Connections are logical connections running over a single physical communications line and are used to connect two devices or locations. A virtual connection, also known as a virtual circuit, acts like a dedicated connection through the provider's network even though the physical lines might be shared by multiple customers. Frame Relay and ATM networks make use of virtual connections or circuits. ATM uses two-level virtual connections: Virtual Channel Connections and Virtual Path Connections, which contain a group or bundle of VCCs.
Virtual Path Connection (VPC)
A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) is a collection of VCCs bundled together. A VPC is identified by a Virtual Path Identifier.
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI)
A Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) identifies an ATM VPC.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a private network built across a public network such as the service provider's network or the Internet.
Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF)
A Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) table or VRF instance is a repository on an MPLS Provider Edge router where customer routing information is stored. VRFs are specific to a customer or VPN and are not shared.
Visibility Enhancer (VE)
VE is one of Sony’s advanced technologies that optimizes contrast and makes a scene more visible. It is ideal for scenes in which objects are difficult to recognize due to severe backlight or shadows. VE optimizes the brightness and colour reproduction of an image dynamically on a pixel-by-pixel basis, while continuously adapting to the scene. Technically, VE stretches the contrast in both the backlit portions and the shadows within a given dynamic range, which is different to Wide-D. VE also contributes to the camera’s high sensitivity. By combining VE with XDNR, the camera can reproduce clear and bright images in very low-light conditions, while keeping noise at a minimal level.
A wide area network (WAN) is a network that connects LANs over large geographic distances.
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Wavelength division multiplexing transmits incoming signals simultaneously over a fiber optic line by putting each signal into a different wavelength (or color) of light. On the receiving end, the de-multiplexer recognizes each different wavelength of light and turns it back into the signal it received.
Well Known Ports
Well Known Ports are software ports in the range 0 to 1023 and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority manages and registers them. They are used only for the most common TCP/IP applications, including FTP (ports 20 and 21), HTTP (port 80), and SMTP (port 25).
White-light LED Illuminator
The white-light LED illuminators built into our cameras emit visible light; they illuminate a scene in an extremely wide range, enabling each camera to capture clear colour images in low-light conditions.