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Closed Captions

Captions (subtitles including cues and sound effects) that are not visible on the screen. Closed captions are seen using a closed caption device and only visible to these audience members. Text content is provided on the DCP.

Coaxial Cabling

Coaxial cabling consists of a central conductive core contained within an insulating layer, a metallic shielding layer, and a plastic coating. Consumers may be familiar with coaxial cabling used today with cable television, satellite television, and cable modems.


Software/hardware for coding/decoding video and audio data.

Collision Domain

A collision domain is a group of network devices that compete with each other for access to one physical wire or cable. A collision domain is also known as a network segment.

Committed Information Rate (CIR)

The Committed Information Rate (CIR) is the transmission rate for a virtual circuit guaranteed by the service provider in Frame Relay network.


A single element used for a DCinema presentation - ex: a feature or a trailer or an advertisement. A composition contains everything required for a successful screening of the content. This usually includes image, audio, subtitles, and a Composition Playlist (see picture on cover)

Composition Playlist (CPL)

A text file that contains all of the information on how the files for a specific Composition should be played back, including how the audio and subtitles are synchronized with the picture. The CPL could contain one reel or many reels, and there are different CPLs for each soundtrack or version that would play back. The CPL is created by the Digital Cinema Packaging Facility

Composition Playlist (used in TMS) Content Element (used in SMS)

These phrases both refer to the pieces of content of the same type (ie. Trailers, Advertisements) that go towards making up parts of a Show Playlist

Connectionless Protocols

Connectionless Protocols do not require a formal connection before two devices can communicate. Ethernet is an example of a connectionless Layer 2 protocol.

Connection-Oriented Protocols

Connection-Oriented Protocols require that two devices establish a formal connection that ensures they are ready to communicate. Connection-oriented Layer 2 protocols include PPP, ATM, and Frame Relay.

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

Constant Bit Rate (CBR) is the ATM service category that is used for the highest priority traffic.


The difference in tone between the lightest and darkest portions of the image.


CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance. CSMA/CA is an access method used by wireless networks to avoid collisions. This method relies on each wireless client receiving positive acknowledgements from the access point to confirm that data was received. If no acknowledgment is received, the client will resend the data. Only a single client can transmit at any one time. CSMA/CA differs from CSMA/CD, which relies on detecting collisions when they occur. CSMA/CD is not possible in an wireless environment; a wireless client cannot detect collisions while it is transmitting.


CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access wtih Collision Detection. CSMA/CD is the MAC protocol used by Ethernet to control access to the physical cable segment. If a device has data to transmit, it listens on the wire to see if any other device is transmitting. If the wire is idle, the device sends the data. All other devices on the segment receive the transmission. CSMA/CD allows a network device to either transmit data or receive data, but not both simultaneously. In some cases, two devices may begin transmitting at the same time, and a data collision may occur. When a data collision occurs, CSMA/CD provides a way for devices to detect the collision and provides a protocol for re-transmitting the data until the frame is successfully transmitted.

Customer Edge (CE) Router

A Customer Edge (CE) router is a router at the customer's site that uses a single physical connection to connect to a Provider Edge router in the provider's MPLS network using any Layer 2 protocol. The CE router is at the edge of the customer's MPLS VPN even though the CE router does not run the MPLS protocol.

Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)

Customer premises equipment (CPE) is any communications equipment located on the customer's premises that is used to connect to the service provider's network. The customer might own the CPE or may lease it from the service provider.


Data Communications Equipment (DCE)

Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is the device that actually puts the data on the local loop. A modem is an example of DCE.

Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)

A Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) is used to identify a Frame Relay PVC, and is similar to a destination address. Service providers assign DLCIs and each Frame Relay frame includes them.

Data Link Layer/Layer 2

In the OSI Reference Model and the Five-Layer Model, Layer 2 is the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer receives packets from Layer 3 (also known as the Network Layer in the OSI and Five-Layer models, or the Internet Layer in the TCP/IP Model). It then adds another header to form a frame. The Data Link Layer can also add a trailer to the frame, such as a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). A CRC is a simple mathematical calculation performed on each frame to ensure it hasn't been corrupted in transit. Finally, the Data Link Layer translates the frame into binary digits, or bits, for Layer 1, the Physical Layer.

Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)

Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) is the device generating the data. A PC is an example of DTE.


see Digital Cinema Distribution Master


Digital Cinema Initiatives LCC


see Digital Cinema Package

Default gateway

Device that can be used to access the other network.

Default Route

In a routing table, a default route tells the router which way to route a packet if it encounters one with a network number it doesn't have listed in its routing table. A default route can be statically configured or learned dynamically via a routing protocol.

Default Router/Default Gateway

A default router, also known as a default gateway, is a network device, such as a router, which serves as a door or an access point to other networks. End-user devices, such as PCs, send packets to their configured default gateway when the destination network number is not the same as their network number.

Defog Image Processing

The Defog Image Processing feature is capable of clearing up fog, mist, and haze in a scene to achieve images that are more visible.


With a DEPA system from Sony, DEPA-enabled cameras send not only video images but also related metadata (including object size and position data) to a DEPA-enabled recorder. Since part of the image processing is done on the camera side, the load to the recorder is reduced, enabling camera expansion. This is different to conventional video analytic systems as these process images solely on the recorder side and this typically causes CPU overload.

DEPA Advanced

DEPA Advanced is an enhanced DEPA technology. Unlike DEPA, a camera incorporating DEPA Advanced completes the entire DEPA analysis (such as intrusion detection with a virtual borderline) on the camera side, and sends only an alarm to the recorder. Since analytic processing is completed in the camera, DEPA Advanced provides the user benefit of easy camera integration with the widest variety of recorders and/or video management solutions.


In networking, device is the generic term used to refer to any of the variety of types of computers, peripherals, and networking equipment that may be connected to a network. Personal computers, servers, and shared printers are devices that may be referred to as end-user devices or hosts. Bridges, switches, and routers are devices that may be referred to as network equipment.

DHCP server

Abbreviation for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server. The IP address of a terminal without an individual IP address can be automatically distributed by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). The DHCP server assigns the IP addresses to the terminals.

Digital Cinema Distribution Master (DCDM)

The uncompressed master files for picture, sound, and subtitling. The image DCDM is colorcorrected for Digital Cinema projection and will be used to create the compressed files for Digital Cinema distribution.

Digital Cinema Package (DCP)

A generic term for a container/collection of Digital Cinema files (compressed image files, uncompressed audio files, subtitle files) and its associated Packing List (see picture on this page). More specific types of DCPs include the Feature DCP (contains all of the files for a feature), a Trailer DCP (contains all of the files for a trailer) and a Distribution DCP (see next item)

Digital Lines

Digital lines are the wires or cable used to carry digital signals, such as the phone system within a large company. Digital lines are copper wires or fiber optic cables that operate at Layer 1 or the Physical Layer. A digital signal is an electrical signal transmitted as a binary code of 1s and 0s. Digital lines include T1/E1 and T3/E3 lines.

Digital Source Master (DSM)

This is the overall movie Master file which is used to create all other master-file versions such as the DCDM for cinema, transferred onto film as the film duplication master, HDTV master, DVD and home video master

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a communications link used to transfer data over regular phone lines and can be used to connect to the Internet. A DSL line is much faster than a regular phone connection, even though the wires it uses are copper like a typical phone line.

Digital zoom

Zooming in/out function of an image without using an optical zooming function.

Direct Routing

Direct Routing is communication between devices without the help of a router.

Discard Eligible (DE)

Discard Eligible (DE) bits are Frame Relay frame bits that are set by the end station to indicate lower priority traffic.

Distortion Correction

Distortion Correction is a camera function that compensates for image distortion that occurs mainly at the periphery of the lens typically appearing as barrel distortion by using the cameras image processing engine. It provides high picture quality with less distortion.

Distributed WLAN Architecture

Distributed architecture, also known as a wireless mesh, is a form of wireless LAN architecture in which data is repeated over wireless to neighbor nodes, which make forwarding decisions to get the data through the network. A wireless mesh can be used to create a dynamic network in environments where cabling would be impossible.

Distribution DCP (Distribution Package)

A DCP delivered by the distributor to the exhibitor. A Distribution DCP usually contains several compositions for exhibition of a show. A distribution package may contain pieces of a Composition, or one complete Composition, or replacement/update files. The Distribution DCP would always contain a Packing List for all the elements in its distribution package.


The Domain Name System (DNS) associates various information with domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, such as www.example.com, into IP addresses, such as Networking equipment needs to know these IP addresses to deliver information.

DNS server

Abbreviation for Domain Name System server. As an IP address required for connecting to the device on an IP network is numerical and difficult to remember, the Domain Name System was established. A domain name is alphabetic and is easier to remember. When a client computer uses a domain name to connect to another computer, it asks a DNS server to translate the name into the corresponding IP address. Then the client computer can obtain the IP address of the computer to be connected.


Dolby Digital Surround Sound - High Specification Audio providers

Dotted Decimal Notation

Dotted Decimal Notation is the representation of a binary IP address in decimal format, separating each octet with a period or dot.


DS0 is the basic digital signaling rate. DS stands for Digital Signal, and is a system of classifying digital circuits according to the rate and format of the signal. A DS0 offers 64 Kbps of bandwidth - the amount of bandwidth usually used for one telephone voice channel.

DS1 Signal

DS1 signal is the signal or logical bit pattern carried on a T1 line and is the equivalent of 24 DS0s or channels.


see Digital Source Master

Dual-light System

The dual-light system offers effective surveillance and crime deterrence with a combination of IR and white-light illuminators. When darkness falls, the cameras on-board infrared (IR) illuminator switches on automatically to capture clear black and white images. Then if there is movement within its field of view, the camera automatically triggers its integrated white LED illuminator, bathing the immediate scene in light; the illuminator can also be spotted clearly from far away. The illuminators sudden switch-on also provides a powerful visual warning to unexpected visitors. At the same time, the camera switches automatically to colour video mode, capturing detail-packed images in colour to assist with positive identification of the subject.

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